Introduction: What they say
A study from the Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Humboldtstraße 50, A-8010 Graz shows that “Cardioprotection and lifespan extension by the natural polyamine spermidine.” This research paper was published in the 14 November 2016 issue of the journal “Nature Medicine” [One of the best research journals in General Biology with an I.Fs of 30.357 (2-year); and 28.439 (5-year)] by Prof.Frank Madeo, Tobias Eisenberg and others.
What we say:
On the foundation of this interesting finding, Dr L Boominathan PhD, Director-cum-chief Scientist of GBMD, reports that: Natural product-derived cardioprotective therapy: Saponins, isolated from Panax japonicus, increase Spermidine levels, augment autophagy, mitophagy and mitochondrial respiration, lower systemic blood pressure, and protect from cardiac diseases via down regulation of their target genes
From the Significance of the study to Public health relevance:
Given that: (1) cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide; (2) cardiovascular disease may be triggered due to atherosclerosis, uncontrolled diabetes, high blood pressure etc., (3) the raise of death rate, due to cardiovascular disease, has increased from 12.3 million in 1990 to 17.3 million in 2013; (4) 13% of cardiovascular disease occur due to uncontrolled high blood pressure; (5) in India, in 2004, 14.6 lakhs deaths (14% of total deaths) were due to ischemic heart disease; (6) 85% of people over 80 years are susceptible to cardiovascular diseases; (7) the global economic cost spent in the treatment of cardiovascular disease in 2011 was little more than 10 billion US dollars; (8) the death due to cardiovascular disease is higher in low-to-middle income countries compared to developed countries; and (9) an alarming number of people, such as 230 lakhs people, will die from cardiovascular diseases each year by 2030, there is an urgent need to find: (i) a cure to diseases, as mentioned above, leading to cardiovascular disease; (ii) a way to induce regeneration of adult cardiomyocytes that were lost in Myocardial patients; (iii) a cheaper alternative to the existing expensive drugs; and (iv) a side-effect-free Natural product-based drug.
What is known?
A few studies suggests that Polyamine Spermidine promotes cardiomyocyte survival and protects against cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanistic basis of which remains largely unclear.
Prof.Frank Madeo’s research team has recently shown that supplementing mice with Spermidine: (1) suppresses inflammation; (2) lowers decrease systemic blood pressure; (3) increases autophagy, mitophagy and mitochondrial respiration in cardiomyocytes; and (4) protects against cardiovascular hypertrophy.
From Research findings to Therapeutic opportunity:
This study suggests a natural product-based cardioprotective therapy. Saponins, by decreasing the expression of their target genes, they may increase the expression of Spermidine synthase. Thereby, they may: (1) increase Spermidine production; (2) increase ATG5 expression; (3) increase titin phosphorylation; (4) suppress inflammation; (5) promote mechano-elastic properties of myocytes; (6) increase autophagy, mitophagy and mitochondrial respiration in cardiomyocytes; (7) preserve diastolic function; (8) decrease systemic blood pressure; and (9) protect from cardiovascular diseases, such as cardiac hypertrophy(fig.1).
Thus, pharmacological formulations encompassing “Saponins or their analogues or Saponins in combination with any of the known compounds that are in use to treat cardiovascular diseases ” may be used to protect it from cardiovascular diseases (fig 2).
Details of the research findings:
Idea Proposed/Formulated (with experimental evidence) by: Dr L Boominathan Ph.D.
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Amount: $ 100
Undisclosed mechanistic information: How Saponins increase Spermine levels, lower blood pressure and protect against cardiac hypertrophy
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Citation: Boominathan, L., Natural product-derived Cardioprotective therapy: Saponins, isolated from Panax japonicus, increase Spermidine levels, augment autophagy, mitophagy and mitochondrial respiration, lower systemic blood pressure, and protect from cardiac diseases via down regulation of their target genes, 8/December/2016, 10.45 pm, Genome-2-Bio-Medicine Discovery center (GBMD), http://genomediscovery.org
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