From Significance of the study to Public health relevance:
Given that: (i) each year nearly 14 million people are diagnosed with cancer globally, and little more than half of them will die; (ii) cancer deaths globally are expected to be doubled by 2030; (iii) most of the cancer patients die due to metastasis; (iv) cancer treatment causes the highest economic loss compared to all the known causes of death worldwide, there is an urgent need to find: (i) bio-molecules that drive metastatic process; and the the way to prevent their expression; (ii) a way to activate immune system to combat cancer (Cancer immunotherapy); (ii) a cheaper alternative to the existing expensive anticancer drugs; (ii) a side-effect-free natural product-based drug; (iii) increase the therapeutic index of anticancer drugs; and (iv) a way to effectively treat and prevent metastatic progression and relapse of advanced/drug-resistant cancers.
Research findings to Therapeutic opportunity:
A number of studies suggests that Shikonin inhibits tumor cell proliferation. However, the mechanism of action is far from clear.
This study suggests that Shikonin, by regulating the expression of its target genes, it may decrease the expression of metastasis promoters such as Fibronectin-I, RhoE and Zeb1/2 and increase the expression of metastasis suppressor E-Cadherin (figs. 1-3).
Thereby, it may: (a) inhibit cell cycle progression; and (d) suppress migration, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Thus, pharmacological formulations encompassing “Shikonin or its analogs, either alone or in combination with other anticancer drugs,” may be used to inhibit the progression of invasive tumors.
Details of the research findings:
Idea Proposed/Formulated (with experimental evidence) by:
Dr L Boominathan Ph.D.
Undisclosed mechanistic information: How Shikonin decreases the expression of Fibronectin-I, RhoE and Zeb1/2 and increases the expression of E-Cadherin
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Citation: Boominathan, L., Natural product-derived therapy for Metastatic cancers: Shikonin, isolated from Zi Cao, decreases the expression of metastasis promoters, such as Fibronectin-I, RhoE and Zeb1/2, increases the expression of metastasis suppressor E-Cadherin, inhibits cell cycle progression, and suppresses migration, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells via up regulation of its target gene, 20/May/2017, 11.45 pm, Genome-2-Bio-Medicine Discovery center (GBMD), http://genomediscovery.org
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