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Sugar-based learning/memory/cognitive-enhancement therapy:Raffinose, a trisaccharide composed of galactose, glucose, and fructose,  increases Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2) levels, improves cognition, and decreases age-associated decline in memory and learning, via down regulation of its target genes, 31/March/2018, 11.30 pm

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Introduction: What they say:

A study from Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA;  Paul F. Glenn Center for the Biology of Aging, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA Neuroscience Graduate Program, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA; Center for Tissue Regeneration, Repair and Restoration, V.A. Palo Alto Healthcare System, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA shows that “Human umbilical cord plasma proteins revitalize hippocampal function in aged mice. This research paper was published, in the 19 April 2017 issue of the journal “Nature” [One of the best research journals in General sciences with an I.F of 43+], by Prof. Wyss-Coray, Castellano JM and others.


What we say:

On the foundation of this interesting finding, Dr L Boominathan PhD, Director-cum-chief Scientist of GBMD, reports that: Sugar-based learning/memory/cognitive-enhancement therapy:Raffinose, a trisaccharide composed of galactose, glucose, and fructose,  increases Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2) levels, improves cognition, and decreases age-associated decline in memory and learning, via down regulation of its target genes


What is known?

Prof.Tony Wyss-Coray’s research team has recently shown that:  (1) human cord plasma treatment promotes cognitive and learning function in aged mice; (2) blood-borne component Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2) is enriched in human cord plasma, young mouse plasma, and young mouse hippocampi; (3) TIMP2 increases hippocampal-dependent cognition; and (4) treating brain slices with TIMP2 antibody inhibits long-term potentiation and prevents hippocampal function, suggesting that increasing the expression of TIMP2 in aged individuals may enhance learning and memory.


From Research findings to Therapeutic opportunity:

This study suggests, for the first time, a sugar-based therapy for age-associated decline in memory function in hippocampus.

 Raffinose, by increasing the expression of its target genes, may increase the levels of TIMP2. Thereby, it may: (1) increase the expression of genes that promote learning and memory; (2) cognition and learning; (3) improve spatial memory; and (4) promote hippocampal function (fig.1).

Figure1. Mechanistic insights into how  Raffinose  functions as a regulator of learning and memory. Raffinose, by increasing the expression of TIMP2, it increases learning and memory in aged individuals

Figure 2. The chemical structure of Raffiose

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Thus, pharmacological formulations encompassing ” raffinose or its analogues, either alone or in combination with other drugs, may be used to suppress age-associated overall physiological decline of hippocampal function and improve cognition and memory (fig.2).


Details of the research findings:

Idea Proposed/Formulated (with experimental evidence) by: Dr L Boominathan Ph.D.

Terms & Conditions apply http://genomediscovery.org/registration/terms-and-conditions/

Undisclosed mechanistic information: How does raffinose increase the levels of TIMP2?

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References:

Web: http://genomediscovery.org or http://newbioideas.com

Citation: Boominathan, L., Sugar-based learning/memory/cognitive-enhancement therapy:Raffinose, a trisaccharide composed of galactose, glucose, and fructose,  increases Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2) levels, improves cognition, and decreases age-associated decline in memory and learning, via down regulation of its target genes, 31/March/2018, 11.30 pm, Genome-2-Bio-Medicine Discovery center (GBMD), http://genomediscovery.org

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