Repurposing the anti-bacterial agent Enoxacin into an antiviral agent: Enoxacin-based antiviral therapy for chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses: Enoxacin (Trade names: Comprecin, Enoksetin, Enoxen, Enroxil, Enoxin, Enoxor, Flumark and others),  a fluoroquinolone-based antibiotic commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections and gonorrhea, increases spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT) expression, depletes spermidine and Spermine levels, and restricts Chikungunya and Zika viruses replication, via upregulation of its target gene, 25/March/2019, 7.54 am

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Intracardiac injection of Hydrogen gas protects against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis: Intracardiac or subcutaneous injection or inhalation of Hydrogen gas decreases MiR-29 expression, activates wnt- signaling and its components GSK3B, ICAT/CTNNBIP1, HBP1, and GLIS2, attenuates pathologic hypertrophy, inhibits fibrosis of the heart tissue, and improves cardiac function via upregulation of its target gene, 25/March/2019, 8.22 am
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Introduction: What they say

A study from the Viral Populations and Pathogenesis Unit, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR 3569, 25–28 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France shows thatInterferon-Induced Spermidine-Spermine Acetyltransferase and Polyamine Depletion Restrict Zika and Chikungunya Viruses.”  This research paper was published, in the 10 August 2016 issue of the journal “Cell Host and microbe” [One of the best research journals in Infectious biology with an I.F of 12.552], by Prof. Marco Vignuzzi, Bryan C. Mounce and others.


What we say: 

On the foundation of this interesting finding, Dr L Boominathan PhD, Director-cum-chief Scientist of GBMD, reports, for the first time, that:  Repurposing the anti-bacterial agent Enoxacin into an antiviral agent: Enoxacin-based antiviral therapy for chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses: Enoxacin (Trade names: Comprecin, Enoksetin, Enoxen, Enroxil, Enoxin, Enoxor, Flumark and others),  a fluoroquinolone-based antibiotic commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections and gonorrhea, increases spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT) expression, depletes spermidine and Spermine levels, and restricts Chikungunya and Zika viruses replication, via upregulation of its target gene


What is known?

Prof. Marco Vignuzzi’s research team has recently shown that induction of type I interferon results in: a) upregulation of SAT1; b) depletion of spermidine and spermine levels; and c) inhibition of Chikungunya and Zika viruses production. They have further validated this by showing that exogenous administration of Polyamines (spermidine and spermine) restores virus replication.


From research findings to Therapeutic opportunity:

This study suggests, for the first time, an anti-bacterial agent Enoxacinbased antiviral therapy for RNA viruses, such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV).  Enoxacin, by increasing the expression of its target gene, it may increase the expression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1) (Figure 1). Thereby, it may: (1) decrease polyamine spermidine and spermine levels; (2) stall CHIKV and ZIKV replication; (3) promote clearance of Zika and Chikungunya Viruses; and (4) strengthen antiviral immunity against RNA viruses. (Figure 2)

Figure 1 Mechanistic insights into how Enoxacin functions as an antiviral agent. ECG inhibits the replication of Chikungunya and Zika viruses through induction of SAT

Figure 2.Enoxacin functions as an anti-CHIKV/ZIKV agent

Thus, pharmacological formulations encompassing “Enoxacin or its analogs, either alone or in combination with other drugs”, may be used to treat infections caused by chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses. Given that enoxacin is more economical compared with other antiviral drugs, it may find a larger utility in patient care as a broad-spectrum anti-viral/infective agent. 


Details of the research findings:

Idea Proposed/Formulated (with experimental evidence) by: Dr L Boominathan Ph.D.

Terms & Conditions apply http://genomediscovery.org/registration/terms-and-conditions/

Undisclosed mechanistic information: How does Enoxacin decrease the expression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1)?

Amount: $ 500#

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# Research cooperation


References:

Web: http://genomediscovery.org or http://newbioideas.com

Citation: Boominathan, L,  Repurposing the anti-bacterial agent Enoxacin into an antiviral agent: Enoxacin-based antiviral therapy for chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses: Enoxacin (Trade names: Comprecin, Enoksetin, Enoxen, Enroxil, Enoxin, Enoxor, Flumark and others),  a fluoroquinolone-based antibiotic commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections and gonorrhea, increases spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT) expression, depletes spermidine and Spermine levels, and restricts Chikungunya and Zika viruses replication, via upregulation of its target gene, 25/March/2019, 7.54 am, Genome-2-Bio-Medicine Discovery center (GBMD), http://genomediscovery.org

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