An aspirin a day keeps cancer away, if so, what is the mechanism?: Probiotic-based chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells and immune-inhibitory receptors in advanced metastatic cancers: A pharmaceutical mixture encompassing Aspirin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus increases the expression of tumor suppressor genes, such as CADM1/2, TIMP3, p53, and TA-p73/p63, inhibits immune-inhibitory receptors/molecules, targets ovarian cancer stem cells, confers protection against chemoresistance and prolongs survival, via up-regulation of its target gene, 6/April/2018, 1.00 pm

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What we say:

On the foundation of this interesting finding, Dr L Boominathan PhD, the Director-cum-chief Scientist of GBMD, reports that: An aspirin a day keeps cancer away, if so, what is the mechanism?: Probiotic-based chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells and immune-inhibitory receptors in advanced metastatic cancers: A pharmaceutical mixture encompassing Aspirin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus increases the expression of tumor suppressor genes, such as p57Kip2, RhoB, p53, and TA-p73/p63, inhibits immune-inhibitory receptors/molecules, targets ovarian cancer stem cells, confers protection against chemoresistance and prolongs survival, via up-regulation of its target gene


The Significance of the study to Public health relevance:

First, given that: (i) each year nearly 14 million people are diagnosed with cancer globally, and little more than half of them will die due to lack of curative treatment available at present; (ii) cancer deaths globally are expected to be doubled by 2030;  and (iii) cancer causes the highest economic loss compared to all the known causes of death worldwide, there is an urgent need to find: (i) a way to prevent an individual from being susceptible to cancer by strengthening his/her own immune system (Cancer immunotherapy); (ii) a cheaper alternative to the existing expensive anticancer drugs; (iii) a side-effect-free natural product-based anticancer drugs that target cancer stem cells; and (iv) a way to effectively treat and prevent metastatic progression and relapse of ovarian cancers.

Second, given that: (1) cancer suppressor p53 is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers of different tissue origin; (2) p53 pathway is altered in about 80% of tumors; (3) our understanding is incomplete in terms of molecular targets and the oncogenic/malignant pathways involved in mutant p53-overexpressing tumors; (4) cancer causes the highest economic loss compared to all the known causes of death worldwide; and (5) cancer causes the considerable economic loss worldwide, there is an urgent need to find a way to effectively treat and stall metastatic progression and relapse of mutant p53-overexpressing human cancers.


From research findings to therapeutic opportunity :

(i) Therapeutic strategy:

This study suggests a therapeutic strategy for stalling the progression of p53-deficient/deleted or mutant-p53 expressing metastatic cancers. By activating tumor suppressor p53’s unmutated “homologous protein such as TAp73/p63” in p53-deficient or mutant-p53 expressing metastatic cancer cells, one can stall their progression.

(ii) Research findings: A number of studies suggest that aspirin inhibits cancer progression. However, the mechanism of action remains largely unknown. This study suggests, for the first time, that Aspirin, by increasing the expression of its target genes, it may: (i) decrease the expression of a number of oncogenes and DNA repair proteins; (ii) increase the expression of tumor/metastasis suppressor genes, such as CADM1/2, TIMP3,; (iii) increase the expression of a number of other tumor suppressor genes, including p53/TA-p73/p63, and their target genes, INKa/p19ARF and others (Figure 1);(iv) activate tumor/metastasis suppressor network; (v) inhibit immunosuppressive/immune-inhibitory receptors/ molecules; (vi) inhibit the activity and proliferation of cancer stem cells; (vii) inhibit tumor growth; and (viii) promote survival (Figures 1-2). Further, the efficacy of Olaparib can be increased by treating cancer patients with a pharmaceutical mixture encompassing Aspirin and probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus  (1.0×103 CFU/ml). Thus, a pharmacological formulation encompassing “Aspirin or its analogs, either alone or in combination with other known anticancer drugs, or probiotics enriched with anti-cancer activity, such as  Lactobacillus rhamnosus,” may be used to inhibit the progression of advanced  cancers and promote disease-free survival (Figure 3)

Figure 1. Mechanistic insights into how Aspirin increases the expression of tumor/metastatic suppressors, such as CADM1/2, TIMP3, p53, TAp73/p63, INK4a, p19ARF and others.

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Figure 3. A pharmacological formulation encompassing “Aspirin and probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus” may attenuate the progression of advanced  cancers through induction of tumor/metastatic suppressors, such as CADM1/2, TIMP3, p53, TAp73/p63, INK4a, p19ARF and others

[/caption]Details of the Research findings:

Idea Proposed/Formulated (with experimental evidence) by: Dr L Boominathan Ph.D.

Amount: $1, 500#

Undisclosed mechanistic information: How does Aspirin  increase the expression of tumor/metastatic suppressors CADM1/2, TIMP3, and others?

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References:

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Citation: Boominathan, L., An aspirin a day keeps cancer away, if so, what is the mechanism?: Probiotic-based chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells and immune-inhibitory receptors in advanced metastatic cancers: A pharmaceutical mixture encompassing Aspirin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus increases the expression of tumor suppressor genes, such as CADM1/2, TIMP3, p53, and TA-p73/p63, inhibits immune-inhibitory receptors/molecules, targets ovarian cancer stem cells, confers protection against chemoresistance and prolongs survival, via up-regulation of its target gene, 6/April/2018, 1.00 pm, Genome-2-BioMedicine Discovery center (GBMD), http://genomediscovery.org

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