Introduction: What they say
A study from the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany shows that “Regulation of body weight and energy homeostasis by neuronal cell adhesion molecule 1.” This research paper was published, in the June 2017 issue of the journal “Nature Neuroscience” [One of the best research journals in Neuroscience with an I.F of 17.398], by Prof. Matthew N Poy and Thomas Rathjen and others.
What we say:
On the foundation of this interesting finding, Dr L Boominathan PhD, Director-cum-chief Scientist of GBMD, reports that: Mechanistic insights into how social isolation stress promotes weight gain and Diabetes: Social isolation stress increases CADM1 and its downstream target genes that inhibit glucose-induced insulin secretion, aggravates insulin resistance, decreases energy utilization, promotes weight gain and diet-induced obesity and TIIDM, via upregulation of its target gene
From significance of the study to public health relevance:
Given that: (1) more than half a billion adults are obese worldwide ; (2) obesity is more prevalent in western countries than in asian countries; (3) obesity results in deregulated blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin sensitivity; and the risks of coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke and TII diabetes mellitus(TIIDM) increase ; (4) more than 422 million people worldwide are affected by Diabetes mellitus (DM); (5) Diabetes is going to be one of the top 10 causes of death by 2030; (6) the life-long painful injection/drug treatment is required to treat DM; and (7) the global economic cost spent for diabetes treatment in 2014 was little more than 600 billion US dollars, there is an urgent need to find: (i) a way to induce regeneration of adult ß-cells that were lost in DM; (ii) a cheaper alternative to the existing expensive weight-loss drugs; (iii) a side-effect-free natural product-based drug; and (iv) a way to cure, not just treat, obesity-associated diseases, including diabetes.
What is known?
Prof. Matthew N Poy’s research team has recently shown that:(1) Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and cell adhesion molecule 2 (CADM2) are over expressed in Obese mice;(2) induction of CADM1 in excitatory neurons promotes weight gain and reduces energy expenditure; and (3) loss of CADM1 protects mice from diet-induced and genetically induced Obesity. Furthermore, decreasing CADM1 levels in mice results in weight loss; and increased energy expenditure, suggesting that decreasing the expression of CADM1 may promote weight loss, augment insulin sensitivity, and alleviate Obesity-associated TIIDM
From research findings to Therapeutic opportunity:
This study suggests, first the first time, mechanistic insights into how Social isolation stress promote weight gain, Obesity and Type II diabetes. Social isolation stress, by increasing the expression of its target gene, it may increase the expression of CADM1. Thereby, it may: (1) decrease pancreatic beta-cell proliferation; (2) decrease expression of genes that promote insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion; (3) promote weight gain; (4) attenuate energy expenditure; (5) increase metabolic stress; and (6) deregulate energy homeostasis (Fig.1).
Given the mechanistic basis of how (fig.1) social isolation stress may promote or augment insulin resistance, obesity and Type-2 diabetes, physicians may consider encouraging their patients, under stress, for a prolonged period, to undergo mindfulness meditation therapy, as it may aid in attenuating insulin resistance, obesity and Type-2 diabetes (https://genomediscovery.org/2019/05/mindfulness-medication-based-pd-1-pathway-activation-for-pain-therapy-mindfulness-medication-increases-the-expression-of-pd-l1-attenuates-acutes-and-chronic-pain-and-suppresses-mechanical-and/).
Together, this study provides, for the first time, mechanistic insights into how social isolation stress may aggravate insulin resistance, obesity and Type-2 diabetes (Figure 2-3); and how mindfulness meditation may function as an adjuvant therapy in patients suffering from insulin resistance, obesity, Type-2 diabetes and others.
Details of the research findings:
Idea Proposed/Formulated (with experimental evidence) by: Dr L Boominathan Ph.D.
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Undisclosed mechanistic information: How does social isolation stress decrease the expression of CADM1?
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Citation: Boominathan, L., Mechanistic insights into how social isolation stress promotes weight gain and Diabetes: Social isolation stress increases CADM1 and its downstream target genes that inhibit glucose-induced insulin secretion, aggravates insulin resistance, decreases energy utilization, promotes weight gain and diet-induced obesity and TIIDM, via up regulation of its target gene, 30/May/2019, 6.58 am, Genome-2-Bio-Medicine Discovery center (GBMD), http://genomediscovery.org
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