Mechanistic insights into how Okinawan longevity diet reduces blood pressure: Consuming ample amounts of Sweet potatoes will reduce blood pressure and extend lifespan: Sweet potato-derived compounds function as longevity promoters: ß-carotene, derived from sweet potatoes,  decreases blood pressure and blood sugar levels, attenuates cardiac dysfunction, increases regeneration of tissues, and prolongs life span, via down regulation of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), 5/January/2019, 2.51 pm

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What they say: Introduction: 

A study from the Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Via Gavazzeni 11, Bergamo, Italy shows that “Disruption of the Ang II type 1 receptor promotes longevity in mice.” This study was published, in the 9 Feb  2009 issue of the journal  “Journal of Clinical Investigations”, by Prof Remuzzi G MD., PhD, and others.


What we say: 

On the foundation of this interesting finding, Dr L Boominathan PhD, Director-cum-chief Scientist of GBMDreports that: Mechanistic insights into how Okinawan longevity diet reduces blood pressure: Consuming ample amounts of Sweet potatoes will reduce blood pressure and extend lifespan: Sweet potato-derived compounds function as longevity promoters: ß-carotene, derived from sweet potatoes,  decreases blood pressure and blood sugar levels, attenuates cardiac dysfunction, increases regeneration of tissues, and prolongs life span, via down regulation of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R)


Significance of the study:

Prof Remuzzi G’s research team had shown that disruption of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R)  in mice: a) decreases cardiac and vascular injury; b) decreases oxidative damage; c) increases the number of mitochondria; d) increases the expression of pro-survival genes NAMPT and Sirtuin3; and e) prolongs lifespan of mice.  Further,  in cultured tubular epithelial cells, Angitensin II decreases Sirtuin3 expression; and this is prevented by Ang II type 1 receptors (AT1) antogonist, suggesting that AT1R inhibitors may extend lifespan. 


From research findings to Therapeutic Opportunity: 

Although 70% of Okinawan longevity diet, consumed by long-lived people from an island in Japan, Okinawa, consists only of Sweet potatoits significance remains elusive. Besides,  people from Bapan, a region from China, who live past hundred years in great health, consume nearly half-a-kilo of a sweet potato every day. However, how increased consumption of sweet potato may aid in extending the lifespan, mechanistically, is not clear up until now. 

This study suggests, for the first time, that Sweet potatoderived compounds function as longevity-promoters. 

ß-carotene is derived from sweet potatoes and others.  100 grams of Sweet purple potato contains about 11.5 mgs of ß-carotene. 

ß-caroteneby increasing the expression of its target gene, it could: (1) decrease angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) expression;(2) decrease blood pressure; (3) increase NAMPT expression; (4) increase NAD+ levels; (5) increase the expression of longevity-promoting genes, such as Sirtuins expression, including Sirtuin-3; (6) increase the number of mitochondria; (7) decrease oxidative damage; (8) attenaute vasucular injury; (9) decrease blood sugar levels; (10) inhibit pulmonary fibrosis; (11) enhance bacterial immunity; (12) slow down cardiac ageing; attenuate cardiac dysfunction; and promote repair after myocardial infarction; (13) decelerate ageing process, and delay the diseases of ageing; (14) increase telomerase expression, and promote tissue and cell rejuvenation; and (15) extend the lifespan of an individual.

Interestingly,  more recently, Prof Remuzzi G’s research team had shown that polymorphisms in AGTR1/AT1R promoter, rs422858 and rs275653, are associated with extreme human longevity.  Evidently,  Japanese centenarians possessing rs275653 allele, not rs422858, express lower level AT1R in perepheral blood polymorphonuclear cells; and have lower blood pressure, suggesting that variations in AT1R gene can lower blood pressure and aid one live past 100.

This also explains why Japan has more number of centenarians compared to other parts of the world, as they consume excess amounts of sweet potatoes (70% of Okinawan diet consists only sweet potatoes), which contain ß-carotene, can lower level AT1R expression and blood pressure. 

Figure 1.  Mechanistic insights into how ß-carotene, derived from sweet potato, functions as a longevity promoter. ß-carotene may extend mammalian lifespan via down-regulation of AT1R and other genes; and up-regulation of other genes, including telomerase.

Figure 2. Mechanistic insights into why Japan has the highest number of centenarians; and how the increased consumption of Sweet potato aids in lifespan extension. ß-carotene, derived from Sweet potato, carrots juice and others,  attenuates the aging process and extends longevity through down regulation of AT1R and other longevity genes.

Figure 3. How does ß-carotene promote longevity and function as an anti-aging agent? Nearly 3/4th of Okinawa longevity diet consists only of Sweet potato. Sweet potato is enriched with ß-carotene (11.5 mg per 100g of sweet potato) compared to other vegetables. So, increased consumption of sweet potato may function as a longevity-promoter through down regulation of AT1R  and other genes

Figure 4.  Okinawa longevity diet. The Okinawan diet depicted above highlights 70% of it consists only of sweet potatoes.  ß-carotene is found abundantly in sweet potatoes compared with other vegetables.

Figure 5.  While it had been shown that deletion of AT1R decreases lifespan and attenuates aging in mice, its precise mechanism of action remains largely unknown.  This study presented here suggests, for the first time, that Sweet potato-derived compounds, such as ß-carotene, by downregulating the expression of AT1R (figs.1-4) and other genes, it could and attenuate aging and extend lifespan.

Thus, pharmacological formulations encompassing “ß-carotene or its analogs or its  functional equivalents that share similar mechanism of action, either alone or in combination with other anti-ageing/longevity promoting compounds, can be used to extend the lifespan of an individual (Figures 1-5). Together, gerontologists/medical practitioners, by recommending aged patients to consume excess amounts of sweet purple potato or its constituent ß-carotene (2o mg), they can prevent ageing-associated (or, stress-associated) increased blood pressure and extend lifespan. 


Details of the research findings: 

Idea Proposed/Formulated byDr L Boominathan Ph.D.  

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Undisclosed mechanistic information: How  does ß-carotene  suppress the expression of  angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R)? 

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References: 

CitationBoominathan, L., Mechanistic insights into how Okinawan longevity diet reduces blood pressure: Consuming ample amounts of Sweet potatoes will reduce blood pressure and extend lifespan: Sweet potato-derived compounds function as longevity promoters: ß-carotene, derived from sweet potatoes,  decreases blood pressure and blood sugar levels, attenuates cardiac dysfunction, increases regeneration of tissues, and prolongs life span, via down regulation of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), 5/January/2019, 2.50 pm, Genome-2-Bio-Medicine Discovery center (GBMD), http://genomediscovery.org

Web: http://genomediscovery.org or newbioideas.com/

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